23. The Ottoman Empire had helped Imam Ahmad Ibn Ibrahim al-Gazi (known as Gragn in folklore) wage a jihad against the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia from 1529-1543. Gragn was killed. Yet, the repercussions of that war linger to this day. The purpose of this brief note is to provide information to the reader on how aliens adversely affected Ethiopia since 1529. It also offers a framework for grasping the folly of the so-called Algiers Agreement of 2000 between Ato Meles and Isaias that worked against the interests of Ethiopians, including the Eritrawe. Since the history associated with the bogus claim is so complicated, it is given in sub-sections. Questions are posed at the end of each subsection so that the reader may grasp the story by using her/his own words.

23.1. Gragn’s jihad.

23.2. Gonderine Dynasty and Zamana Masafint

23.3. European interference During Zamana Masafinit.

23.4. European interference during reunification





Gene Sharp for nonviolent movement

Rubicon is crossed


Joint UEDF-CUD press release of July 2005