Counting:  arithmetic, geometric (power, or antilog)

Positive numbers

Arithmetic:         0          1          2          3                      4                      5                      6

                        ======================================================

 Geometric:                    1          10         100                   1000                 10000       100000

  Power or

  antilog:                        100            101            102                              103                              104                  105               

   logarithmic

    or Log10 =                    0          1          2                    3                     4              5                

 

Positive fractions

 Log10 =                          0          -1         -2                     -3                     -4               -5

Power or

Antilog                          10-0           10-1           10-2                             10-3                             10-4                10-5                                                                                                                                    

Reciprocal                      1/100     1/101     1/102                 1/103                 1/104          1/105                                                                                   

Geometric                      1          0.1        0.01                 0.001                0.0001       0.00001

 

Richter scale for seismic waves.   It is a logarithmic number. From a seismometer the magnitude of an earthquake is measured: M = log10A/g B  [where A = amplitude, g = gain,   B = correction for distance].  Thus, an earthquake of magnitude 8 is different from that of magnitude 6 by 2 on a Richter scale, which is logarithmic.  That corresponds to a ground shaking effect of 100 times (arithmetic scale). The energy released to bring about the shaking of the ground is equivalent to 1 raised to the power of 1.5. [Energy released = ground shake ^ 1.5].           

Thus, two earthquakes that are different by a magnitude of 1 have aground shake difference of 10, an a released energy difference of ((101(3/2) = 31.6, [antilog of 1.5].

Other two earthquakes different by 2 on the Richter scale have a ground shake difference of 102=  100, and a released energy difference of ((102)3/2)= 1000.

 

pH = - log10[H].  pH is amesure of acidity   

A neutral solution has a pH = 7 , or  a hydrogen ion concentration of  10-7 = [0.0000001moles] moles of hydrogen

In neutral solution one molecule out of ten million [0.000001] dissociates into H+ and OH-.   Thus. pH = 7 and the pOH = 7

 1 mole  = 1Avogadro number = 6.022 * 1023 individuals.

What is the number of hydrogen ions in a solution where the pH is zero?

pH = 0 = 10-0  = 1/100  = 1/1 = 1mole = 6.022 * 1023 individuals H ions.