From Ahmad Gragn to Meles: an Educational Discourse # 3B





     This is a continuation of a discourse on the Ethiopian "Respect the Vote" nonviolent movement. An Amharic translation by using the Latin script is given at the end.  All dates are according to the Gregorian calendar.]




    Dear all,


     1) The Sultan of the Ottoman Empire lived in Turkey, while governors and pashas of other regions lived in different countries including in Egypt. The Jihad movement by the Ethiopian Ahmad Gragn against the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia was supported by Ottoman Kingdom. The Ottoman Empire had a bogus claim over Ethiopia because it supported the Jihad. Its forces, Turkish and Egyptian, landed in the Ethiopian territories of  Massawa and Sawakin. Ethiopian emperors, Zerse Dingel, Fassilidis, and later during the Reign of Princes (Zamana Masafint) Governors of Tigrey and Hamasen such as Ras Wolde Selassie, Dejazmatch Sabagadis, and Ras Wube, and subsequently Emperor Tewodros and Yohannes have ruled over Hamasen and its coastal and Maritime territories.  However, before the ascent of Emperor Yohannes, as was the custom of Ethiopian rulers, any kinds of people including Turkish and Egyptians were allowed to work and serve as administrators provided they paid tribute to the Ethiopian governor or emperor.  Such ancient Ethiopian practices were changed during and after the reign of Yohannes IV, as European colonization began to take territory away from Ethiopian rule. Sawkain and adjoining regions were taken away from Ethiopia. The Europeans extended southward their snatching away of Ethiopian maritime and coastal regions.


    2) About the time of European colonization of Africa, enamored by the commercial opportunities of the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt, which was a vassal of the Ottoman Empire, took over Turkish claims over Ethiopia. Military expedition of Egypt impoverished it, and Britain colonized Egypt in 1882, and essentially took over the Turkish claim over Ethiopian territories.


    3) Italy was not a united country before 1870.  Before then parts of current day Italy were colonized by France, Austria, and other countries.  Italy was invited by Great Britain to take over Massawa in 1885 against the spirit and the letter of the treaty of 1884 that Britain entered with Emperor Yohannes IV of Ethiopia.


    4) Massawa was an Island at that time and was not connected to the mainland by filling the shallow waters with rocks and mud. In 1887 Ethiopians fought and removed Italians from Dogali, about 16 miles from Massawa. In 1888, Emperor Yohannes marched to the coastal plains to dislodge Italians from a fort at Saati, about 26 miles from Massawa. Unfortunately, he returned to the plateau and then marched to fight the Dervish and died in Matama in 1889. In the wake of Yohannnes' march to Matama and his subsequent death, the Italians advanced to the pleasant plateau administration of Ethiopia. The succeeding emperor of Ethiopia, Menilik II, dislodged Italian forces from their outposts of Amballege and Mekele, routed Italian forces at the battle of Adwa, stopped their advances and signed with them the 1896 Treaty, and the subsequent notes and conventions of 1900, 1902 that explained the root treaty of 1896. Though all conventions and agreements stipulate that boundaries would be surveyed on the ground by a mutually agreed upon committee comprised of Italians and Ethiopians, Ethiopians did not participate in any ground survey of boundaries. They never intended the boundaries to be lasting. In any case, Italy abrogated earlier agreements when it occupied the whole of Ethiopia in 1935, and later when it abrogated its colonies in the Paris Peace Treaty of 1947. Ethiopia regained its coastal territory in 1952, after Britain, which had colonial aspirations over the whole of Ethiopia, was removed.  The reunification of the coastal regions with the rest of Ethiopia was done by the volition and the struggle of Ethiopians of that region. The tyranny of Ato Meles and Isaias stands in sharp contrast to such history. Their 2000 Algiers agreement does not have any historical or legal foundation. The UN Sponsored EEBC (Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission) is bestowing an international boundary within Ethiopia de novo.


    5) When Ato Meles ascended to power in 1991, the Eritrean Administration did not include the Administration of Assab and Awusa. Ato Meles threw away the existent Ethiopian constitution, and gave his own constitution with Article 39 that allowed secession. Ato Meles was not mandated either to give a constitution or to participate in the placement of an international boundary within Ethiopia. On the basis of a referendum that asked if they wished to live under slavery in Ethiopia or in freedom within Eritrea, the inhabitants of the Eritrean Administration elected freedom, which led to their secession   However, the Afar Ethiopians of Assab and Awussa Administration have not been given a referendum to determine their wishes. Hence, there is no basis for the subjugation of the people of Ethiopians of Assab and Awusa region by the tyrannical administration of Isaias even on the basis of the Mele's constitution. The 2000 Algiers agreement between Ato Meles and his friend Ato Isaias has no historical or legal foundation within the new Ethiopian constitution.  Clearly, what Ato Meles committed is a crime of treason.  Instead of being punished for his crime and treason, since Ato Meles stays as the ruler of Ethiopia, the tribulations of Ethiopians (includes the Eritrawe) have no end. Though he received only about 95 of the votes out of a possible 547 seats, Meles stays in power by intimidating the population.



    Ethiopians should adhere to the nonviolent movement "Respect the Vote" because though they do not have an army that currently stands for their rights, they will prevail anyway.


    To be continued


    HG. 10/21/2005



    Yeh qiTeya naw. Ayele Egziabeher: an temehertawe weyeyet #  3B.



    1) Ye Ottoman neguse negest (Sulatan) be Turkey sinor ageregezoth in pashawotch belelotch agerotch be gibtse tchemir yenor neber. Ityopiyawinu Ahamad Gragn ye Ityopian ye kristinna gesziotchin lematifat ye jihad Tornet siakahid ye Ottoman meriotch agizewt nnabar. Ye jihad Tornet silagezuk Itypia yene gizat netch yemil qitfet ye Ottoman agezaz yewara nabar. Serawitotchum, turkotch inn gebToch, Bityopia gizat be Sawaki inna be Mitswa arefu. ye Ityopiaa neguse negestat inne Atse Zerse digel, Fassilidis, be wuhalim Leolan beneneguse gize ( be Zemene Mesafint) ye tigrey inna ye hamasen geziotch inne ras Wolde Selassie, Dejazmatch Sabagadis, Ras Wube,qetelom Atse tewodros inna Yohannes Hamasenen inna yee ityopian wedebotchinna yebaher gizat astedaderwal. Biyonem, Atse Yohannes kemengessatchew befit, be bahilaTchin meseret manignawoum sew, Turkotch inn gebTochen Tchemir serto indibela, giber istem deris  a yeqebele asteddadarim indihon agergeziyotch inna negeusse negestotch yefekedu neber. ye awuropa ye qign gizat astedader be Atse Yohannes zemene mengist simeTa, yetelemedaw  ye Ityopia bahel teshiro, ye Ityopiayan merit Awuropiayanotch mewused jemeru. Sawkin inna akababiwe ke Ityopia teneteqe. Awuropiyawiantoch yeityopian Ye yebes inna ye baher dar betwochin menteq qetelu.


    2) Awuropiyawian African gign gizatatchew be imiydergubet zemen gedema, ye suez canal be 1896 tekefitu be su mekniyat bememtaw habit be medesit, ye Ottoman tegez ye neberetchew GebiT, Turkotch be Ityopia gizat yeneberatchewn astedader inna megnot GibiT werseTchew. Astedaderwan be wetador zematch stasaskeber wetchiw bezetobat adeheyat, inna Brtania GibTin be 1882 qign Gizatwa aderegeTtchat, keziayam Turkotch be Ityopia lie yeneberatin megnot Britania wesdetch.


    3) Italia iske 1870 deres altewahadetchim neber.  kezia befit aana aand akalotchwa a Frencaye, ye Austria indihum yelelotch agerotch kign gizat neberu. ye 1884 Brtitanya  ke Atse Yohannes gar ye feremetchewin ye wul menfis indihum Tshu bemetas be 1885 Italia  Mitswan indetwesed talaqwa Britaniaya gabzetchat.


    4) Mitsewa be izan gize deset neberetch, afer inna dingay bemagor desetwa ke wana meret gar aletgenegnem nabar. be 1887,  wede  16 milewotch ke Mitsew riko kemigegnew  sefera, Dogali lia Ityopiyawian ke Talianotch gar twegetew abarerwatchew. Be 1888 , Atse Yohannes, wede 19 milewotch ke Mitsewa ke mirikew sefra, ke Saati  Talianotchin lememabarer zemtew nabar.  Edle sayereba kerto, wede terarama betwa Temelesew, keziam ke derbushotch gar tewagtew Metama lia me 1889 Atse yohannes Motu. Atse Yohannes wede Metama sizemetu inna simotu Talianotch wede nefasama terrarama  ye Itopia gizat zemetu. KeTelew ye metut ye Ityopia neguse negust, Dagmaw Menilik, be Ambalaghe, inn be mekele, yeneberwn ye Talian mishega aswegedew, be Adwa Zemetcha ye Talian tewagin demtsesew, ye taliynotchin werera agedew ye 1896 wul indihum bezaw wul ye temseretutin ye  1900 inna ye 1902 semenetch ke Talian gar aderegu. Menein inquwa, be hulum semementotch indeteTegesut, ke Ityopiayan ke Talian ye tewoutatu sewotch ye migegnubet komite yemeret wosene indemiwousenu bitsafe, abattotchathin meret wossen imaregagaTu lie alegebubetim.   Wosenu zeleqeta indinorew ayefligum nabar. Yam hono, Taliyan Ityopian be 1935 setwere yekedomwen wul afrsa nabar, keziam, be Paris betedergew ye 1947 a selam wul Talian yeneberat coloni melqequan geltsaletch.  Ityopyan beTeqlala qign lemadreg filagot ye nabart ager   Britania tebarera be  Ityypia yetwesedebat ye yebess inna yeTeref gizatwan be 1952 agegnetch. Aberor ye meqelaqelu yetegegnew be teref gizat ye neberu sewotch be aderot tegadelo inna filgot nanbar. Ke zih tarik gar siwedader ye Ato Meles inna Isais yetchquan serat beghad goltu yetayal.


    5) Ato Meles wede selTan be 1991 sewTu, ye Eritra ye gizat astededar Inna ye Asseb inna Awuassa Astedar and alneberum.  Ato Meles be seTut hega mengist, yemenetel feqad be anqis 39 tetsefwal. Ye eritra newarwotch be berenet ke Ityopia wust weyes be netsanet be Eritra yemishalatchewin indimerTu  refrundum qerbolatchew netsanet merTwal . ye Afar ityopiyaniotch, be Awussa inna Assab nawriwotch gin, ye rassatchwoun idel indiwossenu altederegem.  Selezi, ye afar Itiyopiayawain be tchequangune ye Isaias astedader ye megezubet mekniyat yelem.  Ato Meles be Algeria hedu kegudegnatchew ke at isaias gar be 2000 yewesenut sememenet, be tarikim be addsum ye Ityopia hege mengist bota yelwoum.

    Begehad ye mitayw, At meles ye fetcsemut wejil new, ager meqad new.  Ato Meles be ager mekdat beserut wenjil meketattchew kerto, meri honew be megegnetatchew, ye ityyopiyawian seqa (eritrewyun yetchemeral) maleqiya aTetwal. Menim inqua ke 547 yemertch betowotch wede 95 betch biyashenfum Ato Meles beseltan yemeqoyut hizbum bemasferart naw.


    Ityopiyawyan' Demtse yekeber" betesegnew selamawe inqisqase meself yenorbatchwal, meknyatum be ahunu gize le innesu yemiqom wetader selelatche naw